Transcriptional Profile of the Industrial Hybrid Saccharomyces pastorianus Reveals Temperature-Depen

An article from Soukiana Timouma, Laura Natalia Balarezo-Cisneros, Javier Pinto, Roberto de la Cerda, and Ursula Bond published in Molecular Biology and Evolution, 2021

Saccharomyces pastorianus is a natural yeast evolved from different hybridization events between the mesophilic S. cerevisiae and the cold-tolerant S. eubayanus. This complex aneuploid hybrid carries multiple copies of the parental alleles alongside specific hybrid genes and encodes for multiple protein isoforms which impart novel phenotypes, such as the strong ability to ferment at low temperature. These characteristics lead to agonistic competition for substrates and a plethora of biochemical activities, resulting in a unique cellular metabolism. Here, we investigated the transcriptional signature of the different orthologous alleles in S. pastorianus during temperature shifts. We identified temperature-dependent media-independent genes and showed that 35% has their regulation dependent on extracellular leucine uptake, suggesting an interplay between leucine metabolism and temperature response. The analysis of the expression of ortholog parental alleles unveiled that the majority of the genes expresses preferentially one parental allele over the other and that S. eubayanus-like alleles are significantly over-represented among the genes involved in the cold acclimatization. The presence of functionally redundant parental alleles may impact on the nature of protein complexes established in the hybrid, where both parental alleles are competing. Our expression data indicate that the majority of the protein complexes investigated in the hybrid are likely to be either exclusively chimeric or unispecific and that the redundancy is discouraged, a scenario that fits well with the gene balance hypothesis. This study offers the first overview of the transcriptional pattern of S. pastorianus and provides a rationalization for its unique industrial traits at the expression level.

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